Instructions for Authors

Instructions for Authors

INFORMATION AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

OF MANUSCRIPTS SUBMITTED TO THE

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE VETERINARY MEDICINE

 

TABLE CONTENTS

General Manuscript Information 1

Animal Use and Care Requirements 2

Electronic Manuscript Format Requirements 2

Overview of the Basic AJTCVM Format 3

Basic Format Prior to the Text of All Manuscripts 3

Basic Format and Style of the Text of All Manuscripts 4

Footnote Format 6

Acknowledgements 6

References- General Considerations 6

Reference Formats 7

Table Format and Style 7

Table Templates and Examples 8

Figure Legends 8

Figure Formats 9

Overview of Article Types 9

Format for Basic Science Studies, Clinical Studies and Retrospective Studies 9

Format for Review Articles 10

Format for Case Series 10

Format for “Pearls from Practice” Articles 11

Format for Commentaries 12

Format for Materia Medica 13

Format for “For the Practitioner” Articles 14

Editorial Format 14

Letters to the Editor, Comments and Other Reader Feedback 14

Peer Review Process 14

Publication Sequence 15

Copyright Information 15

AJTCVM Statement of Informed Consent 16

Responsibilities and Disclaimer 16

AJTCVM Style and Grammar Rules 16

GENERAL MANUSCRIPT INFORMATION

  • Only manuscripts reporting some aspect of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM) or Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) will be considered for publication in the American Journal of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (AJTCVM).
  • All manuscripts submitted must not have been published elsewhere in English.
  • Manuscripts submitted to AJTCVM must not be submitted elsewhere, while under consideration for acceptance by the AJTCVM.
  • Manuscripts should be submitted electronically, attached to an email to Dr. Judy Saik, AJTCVM Editor-in-Chief addressed to: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .
  • Manuscripts must be submitted in the format required by the AJTCVM and manuscripts that are not correctly written will be returned to the primary author for re-formatting and re-submission after following the instructions below.
  • The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to reject manuscripts without a TCVM focus or in a format or style unsuitable for the AJTCVM.
  • The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to edit manuscripts to fit the standard format and style of the AJTCVM and scientific journals in general and it is common for several editing requests to be made to authors until the manuscript is in an acceptable standard format to be sent to reviewers.
  • Scientific writing is very different than creative writing and conversational speaking. The editing and re-writing process can be frustrating for some authors. Also, the AJTCVM has a standard style for all articles, which may be different than an author has previously experienced. Many authors have learned excellent scientific writing skills from the painful editing and rewriting process, when they remained open-minded and patient.
  • The Editor-in-Chief will assist new authors, as much as time permits.
  • The General AJTCVM Style and Grammar Rules section below can be a helpful guide for all authors.
  • All manuscripts will be sent to 2-3 TCVM experts for review and approval as described in the Peer Review Process section below.
  • Associate Editors will initially edit manuscripts and may request additional information or changes from the authors.
  • If a clinical study manuscript is being prepared, please review the TCVM Clinical Trial Guidelines, adapted from the CONSORT and REFLECT statements on the AJTCVM website (www.aatcvm.org), to ensure all points under each category have been addressed in the manuscript.

 

ANIMAL USE AND CARE REQUIREMENTS

  • A manuscript containing information that suggests that animals were subjected to adverse, stressful or harsh conditions or treatments will not be considered for publication by AJTCVM.
  • All research studies involving animals must have been performed in compliance with guidelines outlined in the Animal Welfare Act (http://awic.nal.usda.gov), United States Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm), the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (http://oacu.od.nih.gov/regs/guide/guide4.htm), the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (http://www.fass.org/docs/agguide/Chapter01.pdf) or equivalent guidelines from other countries.
  • Authors from countries other than the United States may be asked to submit the animal use and care guidelines from their country.
  • Manuscripts describing studies that involved the use of animals, including studies that involved the use of privately owned animals (animals owned by clients, staff members, students or private entities), must include a statement that the study protocol was reviewed and approved by an appropriate oversight committee (an animal care and use committee or institutional review board) or was performed in compliance with institutional guidelines for research on animals.
  • Manuscripts describing prospective studies that involved privately owned animals must include a statement indicating that owner consent was obtained.

 

ELECTRONIC MANUSCRIPT FORMAT REQUIREMENTS

  • All manuscripts must be submitted in an electronic format using Microsoft Word (version 1997 or newer).
  • The manuscript must be typed using Times New Roman, 10 pt font, single spaced with one inch and justified margins.
  • The body of the text should be single spaced with indented paragraphs (first line by 0.5) with no extra line spacing between paragraphs.
  • Number pages consecutively, but do not number individual lines.
  • Do not use any accessory programs such as automatic footnotes or automatic references programs in the text, as these programs may interfere with the publishing program used.
  • Tables and figures should not be embedded within the manuscript, but simply referred to in the appropriate place in the text and placed after the references in order of appearance in the text (see Overview of Basic AJTCVM Format section below).

 

OVERVIEW OF THE BASIC AJTCVM FORMAT

  • Title
  • Authors’ full names and credentials
  • Communicating author’s email
  • Authors’ affiliations
  • Study funding source (if applicable)
  • Abstract
  • Key words
  • Abbreviations
  • Text
  • Footnotes
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figures with legends beneath

 

BASIC FORMAT PRIOR TO THE TEXT OF ALL MANUSCRIPTS

 

Title:

  • No title page is necessary.
  • The title should be at the top of the page, centered, bolded and in title case letters (Example: First Letter of Major Words Capitalized).
  • If the study was randomized, controlled and/or blinded, please put this in the title.

Authors’ Names and Credentials:

  • List each author’s complete first, middle initial (optional) and last names (in that order) including their credentials centered below the title and not bolded.
  • List only AVMA recognized credentials such as DVM, VMD, MS, PhD, MD (etc.) and AVMA recognized specialties such as DACVIM, DACVS, DACVA and DACT (etc.).
  • CVA and other certification titles for veterinary acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, Tui-na (etc.) that are not currently recognized by the AVMA, should not be included as credentials for publication.

Communicating Author’s email:

  • Centered below the author list, provide a current email address for the corresponding author; this is for internal communications use only and will not to be published.

Affiliations and Locations of the author:

  • Below the email address, in the left margin put the word From:” un-bolded and with a colon and include the affiliation (group or hospital) of each author with the name of the institution or private practice and the town and state followed by the author(s)’ last name(s) in parentheses. Example: From: The Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (Ziegler, Bryon, Memon) or From: The Holistic Veterinary Care Center, Kalamazoo, MI (Jones) and Town and Country Animal Clinic (www.tcac.com), Battle Creek, MI (Smith, Thompson).
  • Do not include street addresses
  • A website address may be included after the clinic name at the primary author’s request.

Study Funding Source(s) and Conflict of interest:

  • Ignore if not applicable to the study.
  • Authors are expected to acknowledge all sources of funding or financial support (Example: Funded by a grant from the American Association of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine).
  • Authors must disclose any financial interests they have with any companies that manufacture products that are the subject of their research or that manufacture competing products.
  • Company ownership, employment, consultancy arrangements and service as an officer or board member should be disclosed.
  • Delete this section if not applicable.

Abstract:

  • Next the title ABSTRACT should be left aligned and bolded.
  • On the next line (single spaced) not indented, write a 250 word summary of pertinent information from the manuscript.
  • If the study was randomized, controlled and blinded, make sure this is included in the abstract.
  • Make sure it is clear whether the study was of a naturally occurring or induced disease, if applicable to the article type.
  • The abstract should not contain information not found in the manuscript.
  • An abstract that contains only introductory information and then states what will be presented will not be accepted.
  • The abstract should be a summary of what is presented in the paper; information from various sections of the paper may be used to form the abstract. Can cut and paste pertinent information for text and then modify so not exceed word limit.
  • The statistical tests used and p-value used to determine significance should be provided.
  • A concluding sentence should be written, addressing the value of the study.

Key words:

  • After a double space, the heading Key words: (bolded, first letter capitalized, followed by a colon) should be placed in the left margin followed by a list of 5-6 non-capitalized key words, separated by commas.

Abbreviations:

  • The title ABBREVIATIONS should be capitalized and centered (no colon) and placed 2 spaces below the Key words.
  • Make a list (one abbreviation and definition per line) of all the important abbreviations repeatedly used in the text
  • An abbreviation should be left aligned, bolded, then the tab key pressed to form an equal space and the definition provided. Example

__________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ABBREVIATIONS

        CHM                      Chinese herbal medicine

        Aqua-AP               Aqua-acupuncture

__________________________________________________________________________________________

  • When first introduced in the abstract and text, the words should be completely written with the abbreviation in parentheses ; example Chinese herbal medicine (CHM).

 

BASIC FORMAT AND STYLE OF THE TEXT OF ALL MANUSCRIPTS

 

General information about Names, Pin-yin and other Terms:

  • Describe the animal care and use and state that it complied with one of the guidelines described above.
  • The animal’s name should not appear in the text or title.
  • In general use the term acupoint instead of point unless written as “acupuncture point” or with a common description (Example: Back Shu Association point, Influential point and Yuan (Source) point etc.).
  • All Chinese Pin-yin terms throughout the manuscript should be italicized and capitalized (Example: Qi, Yin, Yang, Jing, Shen, Zang-fu etc.).
  • Capitalize all TCVM pathogens (Example: Wind, Cold, Heat, Summer Heat, Heat Toxin, Damp and Phlegm).
  • Capitalize the Six Roots: Exterior, Interior, Excess, Deficiency, Hot and Cold.
  • Capitalize the Five Elements (Example: Five Elements, Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water).
  • Capitalize the words: Stagnation, Stasis, Blood and Body Fluids.
  • Do not capitalize blood when using it in the conventional sense (Example: blood vessel, blood lead assay;
  • Do not use the “Find” function under the “Edit” tab on the Microsoft toolbar and simply change all the words “blood” to “Blood”, as some will be incorrect.
  • When referring to Zang-fu organs capitalize the first letter of the organ (Example: Spleen, Kidney, Stomach, Lung, Heart etc.)
  • Do not capitalize the organ name if using it in the conventional sense (Example: heart failure, lung lobe, kidney disease).
  • Use the following terms as shown: Upper Burner (Shang Jiao) instead of Upper Jiao, Middle Burner (Zhong Jiao) instead of Middle Jiao, Lower Burner (Xia Jiao) instead of Lower Jiao, Yuan (Source) point, Yuan (Source) Qi, Back Shu Association point, Front Mu Alarm point.

Acupuncture and Acupuncture Points:

  • List all acupoints used and their indications and actions and depth of insertion (usually present in Table form).
  • Provide needle gauge, length and type (indicate manufacturer as a foot note).
  • Indicate the technique used (Example: dry needles non-manipulated, dry needles manipulated, electroacupuncture, aqua-acupuncture, moxibustion, laser and others).
  • If dry needles were manipulated, provide a detailed description of the manipulation technique, so others can accurately repeat the method.
  • If electro-acupuncture was used, provide equipment information (indicate manufacturer as a foot note), the frequencies used and the duration of treatment at each frequency.
  • If aqua-acupuncture was used, provide details of the hypodermic needle size, depth inserted, primary substance (indicate manufacturer as a foot note), diluting substance (indicate manufacturer as a foot note) substance concentration and amount injected at each site; if different amounts were used for different acupoints, then list in a Table.
  • If moxibustion was used, provide a complete description of the herb (indicate manufacturer as a foot note), technique and duration at each acupoint; if different durations for different acupoints, then list in a Table.
  • If laser or ultrasonic stimulation of acupoints was used, provide equipment information (indicate manufacturer as a foot note), the frequencies used, the duration of each frequency and total duration of treatment at each acupoint; if different durations are used for different acupoints, then list in a Table.
  • If some other treatment of acupuncture points was used provide a detailed description of the technique.
  • Clearly indicate the duration of each treatment, frequency of treatment, total number of treatments and total time period over which treatments were given; if different times between different treatments list in a Table to clarify.
  • After the first use of the type of acupuncture with the abbreviation in parentheses in the text, these standard abbreviations should be used (Example: dry needle acupuncture (DNAP), Electro-acupuncture (EA), Aqua-acupuncture (Aqua-AP) and moxibustion (Moxa).
  • Laser or ultrasonic treatment of acupuncture points should be written out without an abbreviation.
  • No specific dates of treatment should appear anywhere in the manuscript (Example: do not write “on May 5, 2010… and again on May 15, 2010…”.
  • All transpositional acupuncture points should be referred to using the letters, a dash and the appropriate number (Example: LU-1, SP-6, HT-7).
  • The following standard abbreviations should be used for AJTCVM: LU (Lung), LI (Large Intestine), ST (Stomach), SP (Spleen), HT (Heart), SI (Small Intestine), BL (Bladder), KID (Kidney), PC (Pericardium), TH (Triple Heater), GB (Gallbladder), LIV (Liver), CV (Conception Vessel) and GV (Governing Vessel).
  • The terms Du Mai and Ren Mai should be changed to GV Channel and CV Channel respectively.
  • Other Extraordinary Channel names should be written with the Pin-yin name followed by Channel (Example: Chong Channel Dai Channel Yang-Qiao Channel, Yin-Qiao Channel, Yang-Wei Channel and Yin-Wei Channel.
  • No Pin-yin names for transpositional acupoints should be used.
  • When classical acupoints and transpositional acupoints are the same, the transpositional acupoint abbreviation should be used.
  • Classical acupoints and other miscellaneous acupoints should be written using their Pin-yin names presented in italics, with only the first word capitalized with dashes between the words (Example: Da-feng-men.
  • A brief description of the location of all classical points should be given in parentheses after the name. Example: Da-feng-men (midline at the level of the cranial ear bases).
  • The reason for selection of each acupoint, as it pertains to the diagnosis, should be provided.
  • A Table of all the acupoints used, insertion depth and attributes, indications and actions of each should be created (see Table section below for the standard Table format).

Herbal Medicine Formulas and Individual Herbs

  • Please use the term ‘herbal medicine’ instead of ‘herbal therapy’.
  • The country of origin of the herbal medicine should be indicated (Example: Chinese herbal medicine, Korean herbal medicine and Western herbal medicine etc.).
  • Do not write “Traditional Chinese herbal medicine” simply write “Chinese herbal medicine”.
  • All herbal medicine formulas should be written as Pin-yin names, in italics, with the first letter of each word capitalized, the words not separated by dashes Example: Si Jun Zi Tang.
  • If an herbal formula has no Pin-yin name, then write the English name with the classical formula, from which it was modified, in parentheses. Example: Liver Happy (classical antecedent Chai Hu Shu Gan Wan).
  • A superscript small case letter should be placed next to the formula name as a footnote and the manufacturer’s name listed at the end of the text under that footnote letter (see footnotes below).
  • The form of the herb (top dressing, capsule, teapills, granules or biscuits) administered, dosage (amount per kg of body weight), number of doses per day, whether given before, after or with meals and total duration of treatment should be provided for all herbal medicines.
  • The rationale for selection of each herbal medicine should be provided.
  • Single herbs should be listed as the italicized Pin-yin name followed by the English name in parentheses Example: Ren Shen (Ginseng) and their effects as they pertain to the case should be described.
  • Pharmaceutical or Latin names should not to be used and authors will be asked to change to the shortened English name.  
  • A table for each herbal formula should be created which contains individual herb Pin-yin and English names, percentage of each ingredient in the formula if possible and their actions (See Tables section below).

Tui-na

  • List all Tui-na techniques used by Pin-yin name capitalizing only the first letter of the first word with dashes between each word with the definition in parentheses. Example: Yi-zhi-chan (single thumb), Nie-fa (pinching).
  • Clearly indicate locations, duration and frequency of Tui-na treatments and include total number of treatments and total time period over which treatments were performed.
  • Create a Table of Tui-na techniques used and the actions and indications of each type of treatment (See Tables section below).
  • Indicate the type, locations, duration and frequency of Tui-na techniques recommended for at-home treatment by the caretaker
  • Please provide information about actual in-home Tui-na treatments if available; if not say “information about actual in-home Tui-na treatments was not available”.

 

FOOTNOTE FORMAT

  • ·A bold line should be placed between text and the foot notes (Example: _________________).
  • The footnote title FOOTNOTES (bolded, capitalized and left aligned) should be placed beneath the line.
  • Manufacturers of herbal medicine and any equipment described in the paper should appear as a superscript small letter (a,b,c etc.) in the text at the end of the appropriate word and listed (one footnote per line) in the footnotes section with no periods at the end of the line
  •  

FOOTNOTES 

a WQ-6F Electronic Acupunctoscope, Donghua Electronic Equipment Factory, Beijing, China

b KINGLI needles, Kingli Medical Appliance Co., LTD, Wuxi, China

___________________________________________________________________________________________

  • Do not use any automatic footnote programs.
  • A bold line should then be placed between the end of the footnotes and the next section.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  • Ignore if not applicable to the study.
  • The section title is bolded, capitalized, left aligned (Example: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS).
  • If applicable, any source of assistance should be listed below the footnotes; caretakers of animals in the report are not acknowledged.
  • Financial sources of assistance are only listed under Funding Source(s) (See Basic Format Prior to the Text of All Manuscripts above).

 

REFERENCES- GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

  • References are required for all papers submitted.
  • The section title should be bolded, capitalized, left aligned (Example: REFERENCES two spaces below the Footnotes or Acknowledgement sections and before the Tables).
  • References should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text using the automatic numbering system found under the Format section of the Microsoft Word toolbar.
  • Do not use an automatic referencing program that inserts references with superscript numbers or letters.
  • All references must include appropriate page numbers.
  • References should be indicated in the text as superscript numbers at the end of the sentence after the period.  (Example: Horses with severe anhidrosis may die from becoming over-heated.1)
  • No reference numbers should be placed within the sentence, even if they refer to different items in the sentence (Example: Write as follows: In 2 studies of the treatment for back pain in sport horses, Adams evaluated acupuncture and Thompson evaluated Chinese herbal medicine.1,2)
  • When a reference is referred to multiple times, Do not list the same reference more than once and do not use ibid. Simply list the pages in the order to which they are referred in the text (Example: Schwartz C. Four Paws Five Directions. Berkley, CA: Celestial Arts 1996:35-39,1-3,15,12.)
  • Proceedings or course notes should not be used as references as many readers will not have access to them. If such information is available to anyone on a website, then that can be used, but the web address must be provided.

 

REFERENCE FORMATS

  • Please note the following closely in the examples below:
    • o    List last name and initials of first name with no commas or periods in the name.
    • o    If multiple authors, list three names with commas between, then use the term “et al.” to indicate other authors (Example: Smith RL, Jones TJ, Fry LM et al).
    • o    Do not insert an “and” between any author names.
    • o    Use sentence case for the title of paper or chapter and title case for book names.
    • o    Note below the placement of periods, semicolons, spaces and colons as these are standard AJTCVM format.
    • o    For journals list author names, article name (first letter capitalized and the rest in low case letters), the journal name (do not put in italics), the volume and number of the journal and page numbers (see below)
    • o    Always place a period at the end of the reference.
    • o    See format for books and book chapters below
  • Journal Article:
    • o    Xie H, Collahan P, Ott E. Evaluation of electroacupuncture treatment of horses with signs of chronic thoracolumbar pain. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227(5):281-286.
  • Book:
    • Schwartz C. Four Paws Five Directions. Berkley, CA: Celestial Arts 1996:35-39,1-3,15.
  • Book Chapter:
    • Schoen A. Acupuncture for musculoskeletal disorders. Veterinary Acupuncture 2nd Ed, Schoen       A (ed). St Louis, Mo: Mosby 2001:161-165.

 

TABLE FORMAT AND STYLE

  • Tables are needed to show experimental data, acupoints, herbal medicine formula ingredients and Tui-na descriptions.
  • All tables should be typed in New Times Roman 10 point font, single spaced, contain as few rows and columns as necessary to report the data and be saved as Microsoft Word (Excel format is not acceptable).
  • The title for all tables should be at the top of the table with a double space between the title and the actual table.
  • The word “Table” and “number” should be bolded followed by a colon and the actual title should be un-bolded in sentence format (only the first letter capitalized) with no period at the end (Example: Table 2: Ingredients of the Chinese herbal medicine Sheng Mai Yina and their actions (the superscript “a” refers to the manufacturer of the herbal medicine).
  • Number tables consecutively, as cited in the text.
  • Insert references to the Tables in the text at the end of the sentence before the period (Example: The acupoints initial stimulated were BL-21, BL-20, BL-23 and KID-3 (Table 1).
  • Do not say (See Table 1).
  • Give each column a short or abbreviated centered heading.
  • All cells containing numbers or short words should be centered and all others should be left aligned.
  • Do not write complete sentences in the cells, only list items separated by a comma and do not put a period at the end of the list.
  • Use the pleural under actions (Example: Clears Heat not Clear Heat).
  • Explain abbreviations immediately under the table (Example: EA=electro-acupuncture or Moxa= moxibustion).
  • Manufactures should be shown for all herbal formulas as a superscript letter and a footnote as shown above and below.
  • References for any information in the Table should be shown by the appropriate superscript number as shown above and below.

 

TABLE TEMPLATES AND EXAMPLES

  • A standard Table format is used for all articles in AJTCVM
  • Cut and paste the table examples below into your article, preserve the section titles, but delete the example information and replace with information pertinent to the article and use as a template to create the standard AJTCVM table formats.
  • The superscript “1”, after the title Attributes, Indications and Actions or Actions, indicates the reference supplying the information.

 

Table 1: Acupoints used to treat quadriparesis in a 5-year-old pregnant alpaca with the needle depth, indications and actions for each acupoint

 Acupoint Approximate Needle Depth(inches)  Attributes, Indications and Actions1
BL-18 0.50 Back-shu Association point for LIV to tonify liver Qi,  supports the sinews, strengthens the back, relieves back pain
BL-23 0.50 Back-shu Association point for KID, strengthens the hind quarters and back, relieves back pain
BL-62 0.50 Confluent point with Yang-Qiao Mai (Yang Stepping Vessel), ataxia, “wobbler” syndrome
BL-11 0.30 Influential point for bone, arthritis, cervical stiffness,  thoracic limb stiffness

 

 

Table 2: Ingredients of the Chinese herbal medicine Sheng Mai Yina and their actions

 Pin Yin Name   English Name  Amount%  Actions1
Ren Shen Ginseng 37.5% Replenishes the Yuan  (Source) Qi, tonifies Spleen and Lung, promotes Body Fluids, calms Shen
Mai Men Dong Ophiopogon 37.5% Nourishes Yin, clears false Heat, promotes Body Fluids, relieves thirst
Wu Wei Zi Schisandra 35% Restrains dissipation of Lung Qi,  promotes Body Fluids, preserves Jing, restrains excess sweating

 

Table 3: Tui-na techniques used to treat a 13 year old cat with renal failure

 

 Tui-na Technique   Actions1 
Yi-zhi-chan (single thumb) Promotes Qi flow and regulates Zang-Fu organs
Nie-fa (pinching) Invigorates Qi and Blood and regulates Spleen and Stomach

 

FIGURE LEGENDS

  • All figure legends should be typed in New Times Roman 10 point font and placed as a numbered list at the end of the paper after the Tables section.
  • The format should be written with the first letter of the word “figure” capitalized followed by the number, a colon and the legend in sentence structure (only first letter capitalized) (Example: Figure 1: A 10 year old male dachshund, with back pain, receiving acupuncture at Hua-tuo-jia-ji, from vertebrae T10-L2).
  • Legends should be succinct and provide essential information only, but adequately explain findings in the figure.
  • List all acupuncture points visible in photographs of animals receiving acupuncture.

 

FIGURE FORMATS

  • Figures may be inserted at the end of the manuscript with the appropriate legend inserted below each one and placed in the order they are discussed in the text.
  • Figures may also be sent as separate files, but should be clearly labeled with the figure number.
  • Simple figures such as line drawings, bar graphs and line graphs prepared in Excel should be saved as Excel files (.xls) or jpeg files, titled with the corresponding figure number.
  • When displaying the mean in bar graphs make sure to include a line indicating the standard deviation.
  • Line drawings and graphs that were not prepared in Excel are also acceptable, but should be submitted as jpeg files.
  • Figures created with software programs that use proprietary graphic formats (Example: SigmaPlot, Statistix cannot be used; most such software programs have the capability to save figures in a jpeg format).
  • Minimum resolution for line drawings and charts is 1,000 dots per inch.
  • All photographs except radiographs should be of high quality clarity and color, saved in a jpeg format and be at least 1MB.
  • The Editor-in Chief reserves the right to crop photographs or return photographs to the author for cropping or reformatting when needed.
  • Written permission for publication of photographs of client-owned animals must be obtained by the manuscript author and sent to AJTCVM with the manuscript (see Statement of Informed consent below).
  • Avoid photographs with client or caretaker’s faces visible.
  • AJTCVM takes no responsibility for failure of the author to obtain permission for images used in the publication. Any repercussions or legal actions from clients for photographs published without permission can only be taken against the author as described in the Copyright Information section below.

 

OVERVIEW OF ARTICLE TYPES

  • Manuscripts for AJTCVM are classified as:
    • Basic Scientific Studies
    • Clinical Studies
    • Retrospective Studies
    • Reviews
    • Case Series
    • Pearls from TCVM Practice
    • Commentaries
    • Materia Medica
    • For the Practitioner
    • Editorial
    • Letters to the Editor, Comments and Other Reader Feedback

 

FORMAT FOR BASIC SCIENCE STUDIES, CLINICAL STUDIES AND RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES

  • Please refer to the Basic Format and Style of the Text of All Manuscripts section above to ensure all information is included in the appropriate format and style.
  • Please refer to the link Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine at: www.ajtcvm.org for details regarding specific information to be included in each section.
  • Text length must not exceed 6000 words excluding footnotes, references, tables and figure legends.
  • The manuscript should be divided into four sections only.
  • There will be no subsections unless deemed necessary by the Editor-in-Chief and any subsections must contain two or more paragraphs
  • The four sections are:
    • Introduction
    • Materials and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
  • Introduction
    • No title for the section is necessary; just begin text as a first paragraph indented by 0.5.
    • Present a brief review of the literature and other background information on the topic being studied using pertinent references.
    • Conclude the section with a clear statement of the objective(s) and rationale of the study and the research question.
  • Materials and Methods
    • A title is needed for the section, aligned left, all capitals and bolded (Example: MATERIALS AND METHODS).
    • Present a concise, clear description of the experimental design, subjects and statistical methods, beginning under the title as a first paragraph indented by 0.5.
    • Provide enough information that another researcher could perform the identical study.
    • A title is needed for the section, aligned left, all capitals and bolded (Example: RESULTS).
    • The results of the study should be stated concisely and in a logical sequence summarizing important observations, beginning under the title as a first paragraph indented by 0.5.
    • Refer to tables that summarize the data (place actual tables at the end of the text, after the list of references).
    • Show the exact p value for all data (Example: p = 0.02; p = 0.74).
    • Do not simply use p < 0.05 or p > 0.05 as the exact p value is important for anyone using your data to calculate confidence limits or using your data in a meta-analysis.
    • A title is needed for the section, aligned left, all capitals and bolded (Example: DISCUSSION.
    • First present a brief synopsis of the key findings beginning under the title as a first paragraph indented by 0.5).
    • Next provide a discussion of the possible mechanisms and explanations of findings.
    • Include anomalous results, even if there is no explanation or reason for them, as others might benefit.
    • Provide logical reasons for the discrepancy, if the results differ from other published results.
    • Concluded with a paragraph that summarizes findings and provides recommendations and new possibilities or investigations, based on the results; do not use a title like “Conclusions” or “Summary”.
  • Results
  • Discussion
    • Then compare the present study’s findings with relevant findings from other published studies and when possible formulate a brief systematic review combining the results of the current study, with the results of all previous relevant studies.
    • Include a critical description of the limitations of the study and methods used to minimize and compensate for those limitations.
    • Write a brief section that summarizes the clinical and research implications.

 

FORMAT FOR REVIEW ARTICLES

  • Please refer to the Basic Format and Style of the Text of All Manuscripts section above to ensure all information is included in the appropriate format and style.
  • A review article should provide readers with an overview of the scientific literature in a specialized area of TCVM research.
  • For each study include: 1) type of study (e.g. randomized controlled experimental or clinical study, 2) species, 3) disorder or disease studied, 4) number of animals in treatment and control groups, 3) dosage and duration of treatment with Chinese herbal medicine (if applicable), 4) Type of acupuncture, specific acupoints, duration of each treatment session, total number of treatments, time between treatments (if applicable), 5) results providing statistical significance whenever possible, and 6) Authors’ conclusions.
  • Review articles may be solicited by the Editor-in-Chief or submitted unsolicited by the author(s).
  • Manuscripts should not generally exceed 6,000 words, excluding footnotes, references, tables, and figure legends.
  • The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to increase the manuscript length for some topics.
  • The manuscript may have several sections with titles determined by the author and Editor-in-Chief.
  • The use of illustrations, line drawings and figures is encouraged.

 

FORMAT FOR BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS

  • The AJTCVM no longer publishes case reports unless they address something very unusual or important for TCVM practitioners like broken needles or nutritional deficiencies with Food Therapy. They then will be referred to as a Brief Communication
  • Contact the Editor-in-Chief for approval
  • The format is similar to the CASE SERIES described below except is usually about 1500 words.

 

FORMAT FOR CASE SERIES

  • Please refer to the Basic Format and Style of the Text of All Manuscripts section above to ensure all information is included in the appropriate format and style.
  • Clinical case reports include a detailed description of the diagnosis, management and clinical outcome of 3-9 animals. Use a Table relating information for greater than 3 animals
  • For more 9 nine animals, the report should be formatted as a clinical study, as described above.
  • Case report manuscripts should not exceed 2500 words excluding footnotes, references, tables and figure legends.
  • Case reports should include information not previously reported, findings that are new or unique, new treatments or diagnostic methods.
  • Begin with a 250 word abstract summarizing the case (Example: signalment, primary complaint, clinical signs, TCVM examination findings, TCVM diagnosis, conventional treatments (include dose, frequency and duration), TCVM treatment (include acupuncture points, frequency of treatments, number of treatments and any herbal formulas with doses, frequency and duration), rehabilitation activities (if applicable), outcome and length of follow-up.
  • Do not begin with an introduction.
  • Begin the manuscript with the case descriptions
    • For each case begin with the signalment, primary complaint and duration (Example: A ten year old male neutered Beagle dog was presented for a history of intermittent seizures of one year duration).
    • Next provide a pertinent history to include the conventional history as well as a TCVM history (Example: seeks heat, seeks cool, personality characteristics to determine constitution and such).
    • Include conventional diagnostic test results and conventional diagnosis if applicable.
    • Current conventional and TCVM examination findings (include tongue, pulse, acupoint palpation and ears and body surface temperature) should be presented next
    • Add a Table is more than 3 animals.
  • The TCVM diagnosis and findings that support the diagnosis should be clearly stated next.
  • The TCVM treatment strategy and rationale should be presented next.
  • The TCVM treatments, outcomes and duration of follow-up are then presented
    • Acupuncture treatment-List acupoints chosen and their actions, type of acupuncture, the duration of each treatment, number and frequency of treatments, total time period treated and if ongoing, how long it has been (Put information in a table if needed for clarity; see Tables above).
    • Herbal medicine- The form of the herb or herbal formula (top dressing, capsule, teapills, granule or biscuits) given, dosage (amount per kg of body weight), number of doses per day, whether given before, after or with meals and total duration of treatment should be provided for all herbal; (Put this information in a table; see Tables above).
    • Tui-na- List techniques used, duration, frequency and caretaker Tui-na instructions (Put this information in a table; see Tables above); disregard if don't do Tui-na.
    • Food Therapy- List food to add to the diet with reasons to include; list foods to avoid in the diet with reasons to exclude.
    • Make clear types, doses, frequency and duration of all conventional and other medications.
  • After the case presentations, provide a discussion of the problem described in the paper and address how the case series results relates to the findings in other species, including humans.
  • Literature can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed and information obtained by searching key words for the problem.
  • Conclude the article with how the information in this case study can be useful for similar cases in the future.
  • Do not use an animal’s name, but refer to each as “the horse, dog, cat, bird etc”.
  • Do not use the term “owner” instead use “client” or “caretaker”.
  • Do not use any dates in the manuscript, but instead say (Example: two weeks after initial presentation or  two weeks later (four weeks after the initial treatment); Make sure the time frame is clear between treatments, total duration of treatment period and follow-up period.
  • Pertinent references should be included with page numbers (see information on References above).
  • Only with permission from the client, please include pictures of cases or procedures whenever possible (See Copyright section below).

 

FORMAT FOR “PEARLS FROM PRACTICE” ARTICLES

  • Please refer to the Basic Format and Style of the Text of All Manuscripts section above to ensure all information is included in the appropriate format and style.
  • These articles are practical applications of TCVM as used by experts in the clinical setting.
  • The text should not exceed 2500 words.
  • Section titles will be determined by the author(s) and Editor-in-Chief.
  • Do not write in the first person (Example: instead of saying “I have found” or “in my experience” say “The author has found” or “in the author’s experience”).
  • Do not refer to the reader as “you” instead structure the sentences so words like “you, your, our, we, me, my (etc.)” are not necessary.
  • The use of algorithms, line drawings, tables, figures and illustrations are important.
  • Pertinent references should be included with page numbers.
  • Only with permission from the client, please include pictures of cases or procedures whenever possible (See Statement of Informed Consent  and Copyright sections below).

 

FORMAT FOR COMMENTARIES

  • Please refer to the Basic Format and Style of the Text of All Manuscripts section above to ensure all information is included in the appropriate format and style.
  • These articles are opinions and information from TCVM experts on subjects and issues of interest to journal subscribers.
  • The text should not exceed 2500 words.
  • Pertinent references should be included with page numbers.
  • The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors reserve the right to make final decisions on the appropriateness of the content for AJTCVM.

 

FORMAT FOR MATERIA MEDICA

  • The Materia Medica is a brief description of specific information about a Chinese herb.
  • The Editor-in-Chief will provide a list of herbs already described in previous issues, as no herbal material medica will be repeated.
  • The main title should contain the Pin-yin name of the herb with the English name in parentheses (centered, bolded title case (Example: Yan Hu Suo (Corydalis)
  • Use the section titles below should be used as a template; simply fill in the blanks with the appropriate information on the correct line.
    • Common Name: List on same line; capitalize first letter (usually one word).
    • Botanical Name: List on same line; capitalize first letter of first word (usually more than one word).
    • Part used: List on same line; capitalize first letter of first word.
    • Channel/Organ: List on same line; capitalize first letter of first word.
    • Taste: List on same line; capitalize first letter of first word.
    • Energy: List on same line; capitalize first letter of first word.
    • Energetic functions: Create an automatic numbered list beginning one space below the title; use pleural for actions (Example: Clears Heat instead of Clear Heat; no periods at the end).
    • Comments: Make an automatic numbered list, form complete sentences with periods at the end for each comment.
  • Example:

Yan Hu Suo (Corydalis)

 

Common Name: Corydalis

Botanical Name: Corydalis turtschaninovii

Part Used: Stalk

Channel/Organ: Liver, Spleen, Heart

Taste: Bitter, pungent

Energy: Warm

Energetic Functions:        

  1. Invigorates Blood
  2. Activates Qi
  3. Relieves pain in the chest, abdomen and limbs

Comments:                          

  1. One of the most effective herbs to relieve pain because it activates Qi and invigorates Blood circulation
  2. This herb has analgesic, anti- inflammatory, anti-ulcer and cardiovascular effects.


FORMAT FOR “FOR THE PRACTITIONER” ARTICLES

  • Please refer to the Basic Format and Style of the Text of All Manuscripts section above to ensure all information is included in the appropriate format and style.
  • The seven most common Taoist healing arts include: Acupuncture, Chinese Herbal Therapy, Tui-na, Food Therapy, Movement Arts (Tai-chi and Qi-gong), Taoist Meditations and Feng-shui.
  • Veterinary acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, Tui-na and Food Therapy are the primary focus of all the other sections of AJTCVM.
  • In the “For the Practitioner” section, information and exercises on Tai-chi, Qi-gong, Taoist meditations and Feng-shui are presented to encourage further TCVM practitioner exploration, self care and balance.
  • The format will vary with the subject.
  • Photographs and other figures are encouraged.
  • Permission must be obtained of all people in the photographs.

 

EDITORIAL FORMAT

  • The editorial is an article about a subject of interest to TCVM readers written by the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors.
  • The format may vary depending on the subject.

 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR, COMMENTS AND OTHER READER FEEDBACK

  • Readers are encouraged to send questions, comments and other feedback regarding an article attached to an email to the Editor-in-Chief at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .
  • Letter should be written within two month of receiving the journal.
  • Letters should not exceed 500 words and six references.
  • Letter authors should include their full name, AVMA recognized credentials and name and location of an institution or practice affiliation and disclose any formal or informal connection to primary or competing companies or funding sources referred to in the article of interest.
  • Letters containing defamatory, libelous or malicious statements will not be published.
  • Letters representing attacks or attempts to demean individuals or groups will not be published.
  • Letters whose content is deemed inappropriate by the Editor and Associate Editors will be published.
  • Letters accepted for publication may be edited and returned to the author for final approval.
  • The Editor-in-Chief will then send the final letter to the author of the specific article for their comments.
  • The letter and author’s comments will be published in the next issue of AJTCVM.

 

PEER REVIEW PROCESS

  • All manuscripts are first reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and if needed, also reviewed by the Associate Editors to determine suitability for potential publication in AJTCVM and to ensure the appropriate format has been used as outlined in the Instructions to Authors above.
  • Any manuscript that describes methods that have subjected animals to inhumane conditions will be rejected.
  • Edited versions of the manuscript will be returned to the communicating author by the Editor-in-Chief for revisions one or more times, until the proper format and style have been achieved.
  • Articles are then sent to two TCVM experts selected from the AJTCVM Scientific Review Board, Assistant Editors and Advisory Board by the Editor-in-Chief.
  • Reviewers evaluate the study design and execution, accuracy of results and contribution to the literature.
  • Reviewer comments are combined to maintain the anonymity of the reviewers and the manuscript is returned to the author for revisions, unless it has been rejected.
  • Authors who disagree with the reviewers’ comments or the rejection of the manuscript can submit a rebuttal, citing references in the literature to support their view, to the Editor-in-Chief at: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .
  • If provisional acceptance based upon manuscript revision is obtained, the manuscript must be revised and a second review process is then undertaken with the same or additional reviewers, if necessary.
  • If one reviewer accepts the manuscript and another rejects it, a third reviewer will be used to unknowingly make the final decision.
  • The finalized manuscript is then reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors prior to publication to ensure that all reviewer questions and comments have been addressed and to determine if additional information or changes are needed.
  • Any further questions or information requests will be sent to the communicating author for final changes.
  • Galley proofs will be sent to authors for their final approval before sending the journal to the printers.
  • All author changes in the galley proof must be approved by the Editor-in-Chief.
  • A copyright agreement must be signed prior to publication.

 

PUBLICATION SEQUENCE

  • The AJTCVM is published by the American Association of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, 10145 SW 52nd Rd, Gainesville, FL 32608, Telephone: 352-672-6400; FAX: 352-672-6400.
  • The AJTCVM is published biannually in February and August, but due to time needed for editing, reviewing, finalizing, layout, printing and mailing, the deadline for manuscripts is: December 15 (for August issue) and June 15 (for February issue).
  • See subscription information at: http://www.aatcvm.org.
  • Articles are published within 6 months or less of acceptance.

 

COPYRIGHT INFORMATION

  • The primary author must sign the copyright form that confirms the manuscript contains no material the publication of which violates any copyright or other personal or proprietary right of any person or entity.
  • The author must obtain and include with the manuscript, written permission from the respective copyright owners for the use of any textural, illustrative or tabular materials that have been previously published or are otherwise copyrighted and owned by third parties.
  • The author must pay for any permission charges if needed.
  • The author must obtain and include with the manuscript, written permission from clients for the use photographs of their animals.
  • The author must obtain and include with the manuscript, written permission for the use of pictures from a professional photographer.
  • Images obtained from the internet without written permission from the person who created them will not be accepted.
  • The author may not cut and paste information from published abstracts or other documents (even if they are the author)) as that material is copyrighted and such action is plagiarism and illegal.
  • The members of the AJTCVM Editorial Board or AATCVM will not be responsible for consequences of any actions taken over improper use of copyrighted materials (see Responsibilities and Disclaimer section below).
  • The copyright form need only be signed by the primary author, but it is the primary author’s responsibility to report to all other authors about the status and final version of the manuscript, to ensure all are in agreement.
  • The members of the AJTCVM Editorial Board or AATCVM will not be responsible for consequences of any miscommunications between authors.
  • Signed copyright forms may be scanned, signed and sent via email to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .
  • Manuscripts will not be published until the copyright form has been signed and sent to the Editor-in-Chief.

 

AJTCVM STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT
  • Animal owners (clients) and their animals have the right to privacy that should not be infringed upon without informed consent.
  • Identifying information, including animals' names, initials or medical record numbers, should not be published in written descriptions or photographs unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the animal owner gives written informed consent for publication.
  • Clients must consent to all photographs of animals included in a manuscript.
  • Pedigrees should not be published without signed consent from the involved breeders. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential.
  • If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note the changes.
  • Authors should identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

 

RESPONSIBILITIES AND DISCLAIMER
  • Any statement expressed in the American Journal of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (AJTCVM) are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the AJTCVM or American Association of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (AATCVM), which take no responsibility for any statement made.
  • References to a specific method, product, process or service made in an article do not constitute or imply an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by AATCVM or AJTCVM.
  • The materials published in AJTCVM are for general information only and do not represent a standard of AJTCVM or AATCVM, nor are they intended for use as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes or any other legal document.
  • Although this is a peer reviewed journal, neither AJTCVM, AATCVM, nor any peer, individually makes any representation or warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability or utility of any information, apparatus, product or process discussed in this publication and assumes no liability therefore.
  • The information published in AJTCVM should not be used without first securing competent advice, with respect to its suitability for any general or specific applications.
  • Any person utilizing information published in AJTCVM assumes all liability arising from such use, including, but not limited to, infringement of any patent or patents.
  • With respect to all articles, works or other materials presented to the Editorial Board of AJTCVM, AJTVM reserves the right to alter or amend the presentation of the article to fulfill it's journalistic needs and the risk of any claimed loss as a consequence of such action, omission, amendments or alterations by the AJTCVM Editors is and remains solely upon those submitting the material for publication.
  • Mistakes made in articles, brought to the attention of the Editor-in-Chief, will be corrected in a subsequent issue as an Errata Corrige.

 

AJTCVM STYLE AND GRAMMAR RULES

  1. The AMA Manual of Style 10th Edition is the primary reference used for style and grammar in most cases.
  2. Please use the North American English spelling of words not the British spelling of words.
  3. Do not begin the paper with a statement that can not be supported by a reference (Example: Do not write “Anhidosis is frequently diagnosed in equine practice” instead write something like “Anhidrosis has been reported to be a debilitating problem in the equine industry”.1) The superscript number refers to the reference supporting the statement)
  4. Do not state your opinions unless you are writing a Pearls from Practice manuscript then say “In the author’s experience…”.
  5. Data can be rationally interpreted and theories provided for results of data, as this is different than an opinion.
  6. Paraphrase the findings of others and reference their work with a superscript number at the end of the sentence after the period, but do not cut and paste information from any published abstract or article, as this is illegal plagiarism.
  7. Keep references to personal communications with individuals at a minimum. The Editor-in-Chief may delete these.
  8. Do not quote from proceedings articles that cannot be accessed by others. Instead give website for reader access.
  9. Do not quote what others said in a lecture that cannot be documented with proceedings notes that all readers have access to, as that is only hearsay.
  10. Just because an individual is affiliated with a university or other institution does not mean their opinion is valid unless substantiated by publications.
  11. Write primarily in the past tense. Use the past tense to report results or findings, but may use the present tense to discuss results or findings.
  12. Do not use words like: I, me, my, we, our, you, your etc. Instead format the sentence so such words are unnecessary.
  13. Do not use the ending “ing” on a word, when the word “to” can precede it (Example: Do not write, “the author needs assistance in finding the right word” instead use “the author needs assistance to find the right word”.
  14. Avoid long sentences, as comprehension falls rapidly, when sentences exceed about 16 words. One thought per sentence is a good general rule.
  15. In most instances use a period and not a semi-colon between sentences.
  16. Keep punctuation such as excess periods, commas, semicolons and colons to a minimum.
  17. When writing a list do not put a comma after the next to the last item before the “and” (Example: List the year, month, day and time).
  18. Never use capitals, bold or underlining for emphasis within the text.
  19. Break up noun clusters and stacked modifiers (Example: do not write “Cellulose acetate electrophoresis procedure” instead write “Electrophoresis on cellulose acetate”).
  20. Long quotes are best indented (2 tabs) and preceded by a colon and reference and surrounded by quotation marks. Maciocia states this concept as follows:1

“There is a very close relationship between Qi and Blood. Blood is a form of Qi albeit a very dense one. Qi is Yang compared to Blood…”

  1. If only a few words are used, keep these in the body of the text and use inverted commas (Example: According to Maciocia, ‘Blood is a form of Qi…’.1)
  2. Use brackets [ ] for material inserted into a quotation and ellipsis (three dots) for material omitted (Example: According to Jones, "few such [controlled] studies were done… before 1989."1
  3. Do not include long paragraphs of other author’s quotes, but instead paraphrase and reference them.
  4. Use punctuation instead of parentheses or brackets, whenever possible.
  5. Capitalize royal and other titles when used as a title, but not in general (Example: The King is on the throne versus a feast fit for a king.
  6. Numbers within the text are not spelled but the actual number is used (Example: The herbs were administered for 3 months).
  7. Numbers beginning a sentence must be spelled.
  8. The use of and/or instead of or is acceptable to emphasize either or both.
  9. Our use of  “e.g. “and “i.e.” are a bit different than the AMA Style guidelines and more in line with the spell check function of MS Word. Use the following Latin abbreviations as follows and only within parentheses: (i.e. meaning “that is to say”) and (e.g. meaning “for example”). Do not use “etc.” in scientific writing.
  10. Do not put periods in acronyms or apostrophes in their plurals (Example: use CBC or CBCs, but not C.B.C. or CBC’s).
  11. Do not generalize unnecessarily (Example: do not say some if there is only one known instance).
  12. This on its own is known as an ambiguous antecedent. Use instead this test, this problem or whatever.
  13. Do not begin a sentence with however. However is a postpositive conjunction and is always improper at the start of a sentence.
  14. Do not use however or its synonyms twice in one paragraph, because changing the direction of an argument twice in one paragraph may annoy readers.
  15. Do not use however or moreover more than once every 10 paragraphs. Try a thesaurus for synonyms if needed.
  16. Avoid the so-called non-human agent and grammatically questionable formal clichés (Example: do not say “The CBC showed leukocytosis” but instead say “A leukocytosis was found on the CBC”).
  17. Use while and since to refer to time. Do not use them when the meaning is whereas, although or because.
  18. Do not start sentences with because, since or as.
  19. Using because is often clearer than since.
  20. Avoid writing may or may not and whether or not; simply write may or whether (as they both imply not)
  21. Put a comma before the word which, but not before the word that (Example: The current project, which cost $15,000, was a success. The current project that cost $10,000 was a success).
  22. If changing which to that does not alter the meaning, then using that is probably more correct.
  23. Can use owing to or due to as have the same meaning, but when using owing to, precede with a comma and when using due to no comma is needed (Example: The data were lost, owing to computer malfunction. The data were lost due to computer malfunction.
  24. A split infinitive occurs when the adverb is place before the verb and should usually be avoided in scientific writing (Example: avoid “quickly go” and instead use “go quickly”.
  25. Use significant in a statistical context only. The opposite of significant is not significant.
  26. Avoid superlatives such as very, extremely, quite, rather, somewhat and similar words.
  27. Avoid the use of same, exact together (Example: Do not use “the same, exact formula” instead simply say “the exact formula” or “the same formula”.
  28. Paragraphs should include more than one sentence.
  29. Do not use conjunctions such as “don’t or can’t”; instead use “do not or cannot”.